Minke whales have between 240 and 360 baleen plates on each side of their mouths. Normally sounds from these whales are too low for humans to hear. Minke whales, like all baleen whales, lack the system of air sacs and sound-generating ‘phonic lips’ in the forehead region above the skull, that are found in toothed whales, such as dolphins. Their sleek, dark bodies parade black, dark brown and grey tones with a lighter belly that flashes through the water. How is sound used to measure the upper ocean? Minke Whales are the smallest form of baleen whale. Minke definition, a dark-colored baleen whale, Baleanoptera acutorostrata, inhabiting temperate and polar seas and growing to a length of 33 feet (10 meters): reduced in numbers. The presence of the bacteria suggests minke whales rely on microbial digestion to extract nutrients provided by their food. No other marine mammal species were observed in the area when the calls were recorded, and thus, the bio-ducks sound were attributed to the minke whales. The Minke whale is the second smallest of the baleen category. The researchers don't know for sure whether the tagged whales or other nearby minke whales made the sounds. They are also one of the most commonly sighted whales seen on whale-watches from New England and eastern Canada. Document. How is acoustics used to monitor Arctic marine mammals? How do people and animals use sound in the sea? Tutorial: Can Animals Sense These Sounds Part I, Tutorial: Can Animals Sense These Sounds Part II, Decision Makers Science of Sound Tutorial Introduction. Minke whales also produce non-song sounds. Science Tutorial: How are sounds viewed and analyzed? The whale breathes three to five times at short intervals before 'deep-diving' for two to 20 minutes. We've studies the humpback whale song for the past 40 years but the minke whale sounds across the world were described relatively late, which just adds to its mystery. Writing in his 1998 classification, Rice recognized two of the subspecies of the common minke whale - B. a. scammoni (Scammon's minke whale) and a further taxonomically unnamed subspecies found in the Southern Hemisphere, the dwarf minke whale (first described by Best as "Type 3", 1985). The Minke Whale Project is supported by many organisations and lots of wonderful people. Scientists from James Cook University and the Museum of Tropical Queensland have worked closely with participating operators and the Authority, researching tourism impacts and implementing management protocols to ensure these interactions are ecologically sustainable. Science Tutorial: Sound Pressure Levels and Sound Exposure Levels, Decision Makers Sound Source Tutorial Introduction, WOTAN: “Wind Observations Through Ambient Noise”, Archival Marine Acoustic Recording Units (ARUs). Following the moratorium, most hunting of minke whales ceased. How is sound used to measure waves in the surf zone? Environmental organizations and several governments contend that research whaling is simply a cover for commercial whaling. In contrast to humpback whales, minkes do not raise their flukes out of the water when diving and are less likely to breach (jump clear of the sea surface). The permitted catch for the initial season (July 1 - December 31, 2019) is 227 whales, of which 52 can be minke. How is sound used to explore for oil and gas? Mysterious sounds were thought to … How is sound used to identify ecological hotspots? Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)Group formation: Solitary Size: males 6-8 m, females 7-9 m, calf 2.5 m Weight: males 4 t, females 5 (10) t, calf 400 kg Spout: 2 m, hard to see Age: 50-60 yrs Sexual maturity: 6-8 yrs Physical maturity: 18-20 yrs Gestation: 10 mths, every 2 years Weaning: 5-10 months Diet: Krill in the northern areas, but also herring or capelin , Killer whale predation on minke whales has been well documented. Dwarf minke whales produce … Photo courtesy of Tom Jefferson Until the late 1990s, only one species of minke whale was believed to exist, the common minke whale. Minke whale sounds recorded in the North Atlantic included grunts, thumps, and frequency down sweeps ranging to 200 Hz. A limited number of reef tourism operators (based in Port Douglas and Cairns) have been granted permits by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to conduct these swims, given strict adherence to a code of practice, and that operators report details of all sightings as part of a monitoring program. At rest, minke whales spout (breathe) about 5–6 times per minute. How is sound used to monitor nuclear testing? Photo courtesy of Tom Jefferson.  Minke whale carcasses investigated after attacks show that killer whales have an affinity for minke tongues and lower jaw. Tutorial: Where are marine animals likely to be located relative to the source? Minke whales have a digestive system composed of four compartments with a high density of anaerobic bacteria throughout. Discovery of Sounds in the Sea: Minke Whale Sounds; Documents. Hunting continued apace until the general moratorium on whaling began in 1986. Pursuits of minke whales were characterized by prolonged chases on a straight heading at velocities of 15–30 km/h. How is sound used to measure water depth? The anti-predatory mechanism of the minke whale is strictly a flight response, as when this fails no physical retaliation is observed. O stock whales primarily feed on krill in July and August. The SOFAR Channel. Listen to whale songs. The minke whale is the smallest baleen whale in North American waters. Minke Whales have earned the name “Stinky Minkes” because of the less-than-appealing smell of their spouting. The songs are produced only in winter, which is thought to be the breeding season. There is one synonym for B. bonaerensis - B. huttoni (Gray 1874).  In August 2003, Iceland announced it would start research catches to estimate whether the stocks around the island could sustain hunting. The sound of a the minke whale has been recorded for the first time off Scotland’s coast. Science Tutorial: How do you characterize sounds? It looks like the lyre bird and its futuristic laser sounds might finally have a challenger: the dwarf minke whale. In the case of minke whales, several populations are still being impacted by ongoing commercial whaling. Hearing in Cetaceans and Sirenians, the Fully Aquatic Ear. NatureServe lists them as G5 which means the species is secure on global range . Lastly, the Antarctic minke whale produces a unique vocalization called the “bio-duck” sound. The two species of minke whale are the common (or northern) minke whale and the Antarctic (or southern) minke whale. , Two stocks of minke whale are observed in the North Pacific: the "J stock" (Sea of Japan - Yellow Sea - East China sea) and the "O stock" (Okhotsk sea - west Pacific). On occasion, two whales could be seen surfacing at the same time, within one or two body lengths of each other – such associations could last for only one surfacing to as long as about 90 minutes. These hunts are carried out against the backdrop of global climate change and other anthropogenic impacts, such as interactions with fisheries, pollution, as well as ship strike. Minke whales are also occasionally sighted in Pacific waters, in and around the Haro Strait of British Columbia and Washington state. In the North Pacific off Japan there appears to be two phases of conception, the majority of which occurs from February to March but also from August to September, with births occurring from December to January and June to July.  Before 1993, minke whales in the north Barents Sea fed predominantly on capelin until stocks collapsed and the whales switched to krill as their primary prey type. As their name suggests, Antarctic minke whales live mainly in Antarctica! Underwater sounds Whales Antarctic blue whale: NE Pacific blue whale: NE Pacific Bryde's whale: Humpback whale: Pacific minke whale boing: Atlantic minke whale pulse train: Fish Bocaccio: Nassau grouper: Redhind grouper: "Jetski" - Atlantic midshipman? Size: 7-10 m ( ft) Weight: 5-7 tonnes Diet: Mostly small schooling fish such as sandeels and capelin, but also krill and opportunistically other small schooling fish species The minke whale is a baleen whale that belongs to the rorqual family and is its smallest member. The grunts are between 165 to 320 msec long with most energy between 80 and 140 Hz.  The minke whale population in the Norwegian Sea primarily feeds on adult herring  while krill, capelin, and sand eels are also recorded prey types. (2014).  The two species of minke whale are the common (or northern) minke whale and the Antarctic (or southern) minke whale. , Minke whales in the north Atlantic are observed to take a variety of food items. In addition to using vocal communication minke whales are also known to breach the water and lobtail. However, in recent years, researchers have determined that enough scientific evidence exists to recognize two separate species. The newborns nurse for five to 10 months. These sounds are used to communicatevarious needs, wants and dangers to other whales within the area. The spout of the minke whale is a very low, almost inconspicuous stream that rises up to 2 m above the water. Thump trains near Martinique, West Indies, January 2000. They are part of the largest group of baleen whales called the rorquals (Family Balaenopteridae, the family that includes: blue whales, Bryde’s whales, fin whales, h… How is sound used to measure, detect, and track oil? , Antarctic minke whales are diurnal feeders. The minke whale /ˈmɪnki/, or lesser rorqual, is a species complex of baleen whale. Description Minke whale in Monterey Bay. [clarification needed] Common minke whales (Northern Hemisphere variety) are distinguished from other whales by a white band on each flipper. The highly repetitive sound consists of a regular series of downswept pulses, ranging from 50-300 Hz, with an interval of 3.1 between the start of two series.  Between November 2017 and March 2018, Japan reported catches of a total of 333 Minke whales, of which 122 were pregnant females.. Difference between the timing of the seasons may prevent the two closely related species from mixing. Minke whales are the smallest of the baleen whales with 50-70 throat grooves. How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? Risch, D., Gales, N. J., Gedamke, J., Kindermann, L., Nowacek, D. P., Read, A. J., … Friedlaender, A. S. (2014). The Minke (pronounced mink-ee) Balaenoptera acutorostrata whale is the smallest of the baleen whales, the largest being the Blue whale, which we’ll get to on their own page.Although the Minke is stated as being the most abundant of the whale species, they are not seen as frequently as one would think. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Minke whale acoustic behavior and multi-year seasonal and diel vocalization patterns in Massachusetts Bay, USA. How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? COSEWIC puts both species in the Not At Risk category . Minke whales were not then regularly hunted by the large-scale whaling operations in the Southern Ocean because of their relatively small size. The vocalization is repeated at very consistent intervals that can vary from 1-2 seconds to 3-4 minutes.  In 1804, Bernard Germain de Lacépède described a juvenile specimen of Balaenoptera acuto-rostrata. How is sound used to research wind energy? How do marine invertebrates detect sounds? In the Southern Hemisphere conception takes place from June to December with a peak in August and September. They aren’t likely to be more than 35 feet long or to weigh more than 5.5 tons. J stock whales' primary prey type is Japanese anchovy during May and June, Pacific saury in July and August, and krill in September. Because of these reasons, sound is especially useful for studying these animals. Minke Whale Range Species Fact: The scientific name for the minke whales translate to: "winged whale" (Balaenoptera), "sharp snout" (acutorostrata). The minke whale can create sounds at over 150 decibel and be heard from many miles away. In the Pacific, the long-mysterious “boing” heard by acousticians has been identified as produced by common minke whales (Rankin and Barlow, 2005). How is sound used to measure wind over the ocean? , Due to their relative abundance, minke whales are often the focus of whale-watching cruises setting sail from, for instance, the Isle of Mull in Scotland, County Cork in Ireland and Húsavík in Iceland, and tours taken on the east coast of Canada. The thumps are between 100 and 200 Hz, lasting 50-70 msec. IV. The timing of conception and birth varies between region. However, magnetic resonance imaging points to evidence that the minke whale has fat deposits in their jaws intended for sound reception, much like Odontocetes. How is sound used to study undersea earthquakes? Previous calculations of source levels for minke whale vocalizations were in the range of 160–165 dB re 1 μPa [13,14]. Minke Whale. Japan continued catching whales under the special research permit clause in the IWC convention, though in significantly smaller numbers. What the sounds mean in whale-speak remains a mystery to scientists. , On at least one occasion, an Antarctic minke whale has been confirmed migrating to the Arctic. How is sound used to measure rainfall over the ocean? The large form of the common minke whale is found in the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. Acoustically, the minke populations across the globe are very different. Most of the length of the back, including dorsal fin and blowholes, appears at once when the whale surfaces to breathe. Common minke whales have a white band on both pectoral flippers. Most modern classifications split the minke whale into two species; Taxonomists further categorize the common minke whale into two or three subspecies; the North Atlantic minke whale, the North Pacific minke whale and dwarf minke whale. Other rorquals are e.g. How is sound used to estimate marine mammal abundance?  Chases most commonly lead into open ocean, although there have been records of minke whales inadvertently swimming into confined, shallow waters. image caption A minke whale was spotted off Fish Sands on the Hartlepool headland A minke whale in danger of being stranded on a beach has been rescued. The minke whale is a black/gray/purple color. In the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia), a swim-with-whales tourism industry has developed based on the June and July migration of dwarf minke whales. Acoustic tags deployed on two Antarctic minke whales recorded the bio-duck sounds. The 2004 estimate yielded 515,000 individuals for the Antarctic minke stock. How do marine invertebrates produce sounds? Common minke whales found in the North Atlantic produce repetitive, low-frequency (100-500 Hz) pulse trains that may consist of either grunt-like pulses or thump-like pulses. Their sleek, dark bodies parade black, dark brown and grey tones with a lighter belly that flashes through the water. It consists of a brief pulse at 1.3 kHz, followed by a call at 1.4 kHz that changes frequency slightly over its 2.5 sec duration. Echolocation Although Norway initially followed the moratorium, they had placed an objection to it with the IWC and resumed a commercial hunt of the Common minke whale in 1993. How is sound used to measure global climate change? They have very pronounced accents based on where they are in the world.  Seasonal variations in diet exist. The maximum swimming speed of minkes has been estimated at 38 km/h (24 mph). Peak birth time occurs from July to August. In July 2019, Japan resumed commercial whaling activities. How is active acoustics used in fisheries research and management? Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (, Risch, Denise, Van Parijs, S. M., & Siebert, U. A 2007 analysis of DNA fingerprinting of whale meat estimated South Korean fishermen caught 827 minke between 1999 and 2003, approximately twice the officially reported number. Glover KA, Kanda N, Haug T, Pastene LA, Øien N, Goto M, et al. Marine mammal researchers at the Scottish Association …  Most minke whales observed in 2002 (90.4%) fed solely on one prey species. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. Calving is thought to occur every two years.. In the early 2000’s, it was determined that minke whales were producing this sound. Minke whale in Monterey Bay. However, in recent years, researchers have determined that enough scientific (2010) Migration of Antarctic Minke Whales to the Arctic. The quota for 2006 was set at 1,052 animals, but only 546 were taken. Minke whales typically live for 30–50 years; in some cases they may live for up to 60 years. Reported maximum lengths vary from 9.1 to 10.7 m (30 to 35 ft) for females and 8.8 to 9.8 m (29 to 32 ft) for males. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. How is sound used to study marine mammal distribution? Passive Acoustic Monitoring Reveals Clues to Minke Whale Calling Behavior and Movements in the Gulf of Maine, https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003187. How is sound used to find objects on the ocean bottom? Females may be slightly larger than males. The common minke whale is the smallest of all baleen whales, reaching around 8 to 9 metres long. Sound Pressure Levels and Sound Exposure Levels, Ocean Noise Variability and Noise Budgets, Propagation from a sound source array in the near field and far field. The Antarctic minke whale is found in southern hemisphere waters, where a dwarf subspecies of the common minke whale also exists. Many baleen whale populations have been reduced extensively by whaling, which makes them more vulnerable to negative impacts from changes in their habitats (Baker and Clapham, 2004). , As of 2018, the IUCN Red List labels the common minke whale as Least Concern and the Antarctic minke whale as Near Threatened.. Pulse trains last 40-60 seconds and are repeated every 6-14 minutes in bouts lasting several hours. : Unknown fish downsweeps: How does sound in air differ from sound in water? Vocalizations Associated with Reproduction. Both species undertake seasonal migration routes to the poles during spring and towards the tropics during fall and winter. , The gestation period for minke whales is 10 months, and calves measure 2.4 to 2.8 m (7.9 to 9.2 ft) at birth. Minke whales are mostly solitary animals often traveling alone or in small podsof 2 – 3 whales.  This minke whale population mainly feeds on Antarctic krill in offshore areas and ice krill in coastal areas on the continental shelf such as the Ross sea and Prydz bay. Minke whales are identified by a narrow, pointed rostrum (snout) and black or dark gray coloring on the back with gray shading extending up each side in front of and below the dorsal fin. The 2006 catch by Japanese whalers included 505 Antarctic minke whales. What happens when sound pressures are large? In the North Atlantic conception takes place from December to May with a peak month of February with birth taking place from October to March with a peak in December. In the Yellow Sea stock these two phases have not been noted with conception occurring from July to September and birth peaking from May to June. How is sound used to measure currents in the ocean? the blue whale, the fin whale and the humpback whale. 6 Magnificent Minke Whale Facts. Many specifics about migration in this species still remain unclear. Minke whales can be hard to research; they are fast, observed swimming at speeds of 30 km/h, and their surfacing can been sporadic and hard to follow.  The population has been recorded to forage on ten known species: five fish (Antarctic silverfish, Antarctic jonasfish, Antarctic lanternfish, Chionodraco, and Notothenia), four euphausiids (Antarctic krill, ice krill, Euphausia frigida, Thysanoessa macrura), and one amphipod (Themisto gaudichaudii). These sounds have been attributed to minke whales, though there is some uncertainty. This raised concerns that some whales were being caught deliberately. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15197. Both sexes typically weigh 4–5 t (3.9–4.9 long tons; 4.4–5.5 short tons) at sexual maturity, and the maximum weight may be as much as 10 t (9.8 long tons; 11 short tons).  The quota for 2011 was set at 1286. Minke whale - Balaenoptera acutorostrata The minke whale is a medium-sized whale, sleek in shape, with a very pointed head.It is dark grey to black in colour with a white underside and has white patches behind the head and a distinctive bright white band on the outer part of the pectoral flippers. How is sound used to navigate underwater? Common minke whales in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, the dwarf subspecies in the Antarctic, and the Antarctic (or southern) minke whale each produce different vocalizations. NOAA, Northeast Fisheries Science Center: Risch, D, Clark, C., Dugan, P., Popescu, M., Siebert, U., & Van Parijs, S. (2013).  In Scotland, sand eels are the most commonly observed prey species, followed by herring and sprat. Minke whales appear to have distinctly different songs in each geographic region. This mysterious, “quacking-like” sound had been recorded in the Southern Ocean for decades, but its source was unknown until 2013. All minke whales are part of the rorquals, a family that includes the humpback whale, the fin whale, the Bryde's whale, the sei whale and the blue whale. By the end of the 1930s, they were the target of coastal whaling by Brazil, Canada, China, Greenland, Japan, Korea, Norway, and South Africa. Individual calling behaviour and movements of North Atlantic minke whales (. How is sound used to monitor and defend harbors? In the 19th century, they were considered too small to chase, and received their name from a young Norwegian whale-spotter in the crew of Svend Foyn, who harpooned one, mistaking it for a blue whale and was derided for it..  A study in 1975 found that in 49 killer whale stomachs, 84% had consumed minke whale. Minke whales have been recorded off Scotland's east coast for the first time, scientists have said. Breeding peaks during the summer months. In the San Juan Islands, although up to six whales could be seen in a feeding area at once they usually acted independently, with no indications of cooperative feeding like that observed in their larger relatives the humpback and fin whale. The body is usually black or dark-gray above and white underneath. Minke whales are very difficult to see in the ocean because they have a low or nonexistent blow or spout when they surface, they surface for a very brief amount of time, and they are usually found alone. Scroll below for some fun underwater sounds. Four attacks were successful. On occasion they can be found swimming in larger pods during feeding or foraging. How is sound used to communicate underwater? The minke whales are the second smallest baleen whale; only the pygmy right whale is smaller. There are two species of minke whales: minke whales, aka common or northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Lacépède, 1804, acutorostrata means ‘sharp snouted’) and Antarctic or southern minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis(Burmeister, 1867). How does marine life affect ocean sound levels? They make very loud sounds, up to 152 decibels (as loud as a jet taking off).  The minke whale was first described by the Danish naturalist Otto Fabricius in 1780, who assumed it must be an already known species and assigned his specimen to Balaena rostrata, a name given to the northern bottlenose whale by Otto Friedrich Müller in 1776. , Whaling was mentioned in Norwegian written sources as early as the year 800, and hunting minke whales with harpoons was common in the 11th century. Upon reaching sexual maturity (6–8 years of age), males measure an average of 6.9 m (23 ft) and females 8 m (26 ft) in length, respectively. In minke whales, the sounds probably come from the larynx, although none of the baleen whales have vocal cords. Tutorial: How can we moderate or eliminate the effects of human activities? How does sea ice affect how sound travels? "Whole genome resequencing reveals diagnostic markers for investigating global migration and hybridization between minke whale species", "Cetacean mitochondrial DNA control region: sequences of all extant baleen whales and two sperm whale species", "Antarctic minke whales migrate to the Arctic", "Migration of Antarctic Minke Whales to the Arctic", "Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross", "The auditory anatomy of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): a potential fatty sound reception pathway in a baleen whale", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015197, "Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)", "The nature of the interrelationships between killer whales and other cetaceans", "DIET AND FOOD AVAILABILITY FOR NORTHEAST ATLANTIC MINKE WHALES BALAENOPTERA ACUTOROSTRATA", "Geographical and seasonal changes of the prey species of minke whale in the Northwestern Pacific", "Prey composition and consumption rate by Antarctic minke whales based on JARPA and JARPAII data", "Japanese whale hunters kill 122 pregnant minke", "High value of whale meat costs minkes in Korea", "Japan's first commercial whale catch in 31 years".
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